Urology is a branch of medicine that specializes in the treatment of conditions which involves the male and female urinary tract and the male reproductive organs. Urologists are trained to diagnose, detect and treat this group of disorders and diseases and are specialized in the field of urology
Urologists treat the disorders those involving the kidneys, the ureters, the adrenal glands, the bladder and the urethra. In males, a urologist also treats conditions of the testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate and penis.
A Urologist is mainly involved in the medical management of conditions such as the urinary tract infection and prostate enlargement and surgical management of conditions such as bladder cancer, prostate cancer, kidney stones and stress incontinence.
In case of cancer of the urinary tract, urologists may need to work in conjunction with oncologists or radiotherapists. For conditions relating to any issues with the kidneys, they have to work with nephrologists, gynaecologists dealing with the female reproductive system and endocrinologists dealing with the endocrine system and hormone disorders. Urologists also collaborate with practitioners of paediatric surgery and colorectal surgery.
All urologists are post-graduates who have trained for five years, and have completed 12 months in general surgery and another 36 months in clinical urology. There are several specialist areas that can be practiced by urologists after the completion of a urology degree. Some of these include: Urologic oncology, Neurourology, Paediatric urology, Andrology and Endourology.
Medication can include: antibiotics used for bacterial infections, hormone treatment for prostate cancer, inhibitors for erectile dysfunction, drugs that will act on the smooth muscle of the bladder in order to reduce urinary incontinence, chemotherapy drugs for cancer. Surgeries can include: open surgery, laparoscopic or minimally invasive "keyhole" surgery laser therapy to treat BPH, cancer, and kidney stones.
Urologist perform surgeries to remove the entire bladder, prostate, in cases of cancer, relieve strictures in the urethra, caused by scar tissue, known as urethral dilation, relieve stress incontinence, break up or remove kidney stone, a part of a kidney, transplant kidney and to remove a tumour. Vasectomy which is the permanent form of male contraception is also carried out by a urologist.